About journal > Instructions for authors


The difficulty inherent in the interdisciplinary approach is to be able to propose, within the same journal, typographical choices and the formatting of references that do not contradict the rules agreed upon within the disciplines. The journal, in view of the subject matter it develops, therefore makes the choice, on the one hand, to respect disciplinary identities by proposing two typographical models for referencing and bibliography to be chosen according to the researcher's practice and, on the other hand, to impose common rules that will contribute to the harmonization necessary for a good editorial orchestration of the texts. This conception makes it possible to situate the journal as a springboard towards interdisciplinarity without masking the particularities of the disciplines represented.

The publication standards are presented according to the publishing format recommended by the journal's editorial committee. It is desirable, in order to accelerate the work of editing and harmonize the presentation of texts, that authors conform to them as much as possible.

Here are the main typographical rules that we ask you to adopt. In case of uncertainty or for further details, we refer to the Lexicon of Typographical Rules in use at the National Printing Office.


Manuscript format

The order of magnitude of the published articles is 30,000 to 50,000 characters excluding spaces. The size of the research notes is increased from 200 to 300 words. Longer texts may be accepted but are subject to the approval of the editorial committee.

Write texts using Times New Roman typography, font size 11, 12-point line spacing; size 9 for notes, 10 point spacing. Justify texts, including notes.

  • Title

Times New Roman 14, bold, centered.

One line break after the title.


  • Author's name

Times New Roman 14, center. First name Last name. Capital letters only in initials. Next line: name of home university in italics, Times New Roman, size 14, centered.


  • Abstract

The summary is given in French. It must be concise and must not exceed 850 characters excluding spaces. It briefly outlines the objective of the research, the main results, and the major conclusions of the study. Citation of references in the abstract is discouraged, however, if the call for authors is indispensable, mention only the name(s) of the author(s) and the year. The use of unusual abbreviations is also discouraged; if necessary, it is important to define them the first time they are cited in the abstract.


  • Keywords

Concerning the list of keywords, they must be written without capital letters (except proper names), and without a period at the end of the list.


  • Party titles

Times New Roman 12, bold, lowercase, no front line indentation. The numbering is free, (letter, number, none), but be careful not to multiply the title levels.

* Bold characters for the first level, size 12, without indentation (leave two lines before, one line after).

* Bold characters for the second level, size 11, without indentation (one line before, none after).

* Italics for the third level, size 11, indented 0.7 cm (one line before, none after).


  • Paragraph formatting

First line removal: 0.7 cm.

No indentation left or right of the text, except for long quotations (0.7 cm indentation left, text size 10).

Leave a 3-point spacing after each paragraph. The spacing between large parts may be increased.


  • Layout of the page

Provide .doc files with a rudimentary page layout (the latter will in any case be completely reworked and adapted to the models of the collections).

Use indents to easily distinguish paragraphs (do not use tabs at the beginning and blank lines between paragraphs). Extracted citations should be clearly identifiable.

Margins (whether the page is odd or even): top: 5.5 cm, bottom: 4.4 cm, left: 4.5 cm, right: 4.5 cm, header: 4.5 cm.


  • Quotes

Short: in Roman (straight) characters and between quotation marks in the body of the text. Use quotation marks " à la française " (as here); the English quotation marks are reserved for second level quotations ("concrete" example of their use ").

Long: extract them from the text, in Roman characters (rights) and between quotation marks (but the final result will depend on the collection).

Foreign quotations are in italics (but the quotation marks containing them - belonging to the main text - remain in Roman).

Any break in a quotation should be indicated by [...]; similarly, any personal connections or comments should be placed in square brackets.


  • Quotation marks and punctuation

The beginning of the quotation is faded into the text but ends with a full sentence (full stop outside). E.g.: Ms. Lepic compares Carrot Hair to "drum sticks. He would use a jar of ointment every morning if he was given some".

The quotation begins with a full sentence; it is introduced by a colon if it follows the text; her first word then takes an initial capital (full stop inside). E.g.: two centuries before our era, the poet Terence said: "I am a man and nothing that is human is foreign to me. »


  • Abbreviations

Define in the body of the text (or in a footnote if the term is very long) abbreviations that are not in common use when first used.

In most cases, abbreviations remain lower case. E.g.: vol., t., no, ms. (singular), mss (plural), etc.


  • Unbreakable spaces

It is imperative to enter the unbreakables (ctrl-maj-space on PC). As much as the paper layout can be corrected, the display of the digital version will be random as it depends on the user's parameters (e.g. if there is no unbreakable at "p. 200", then "200" can be rejected at the beginning of the line).

Some examples of unbreakables to insert (symbolized below by " "):

- October" "1," "1999, 200" "mètres, M." "Dupont, Louis" "XIV, vol." "I, p." "39, 300" "p., f°" "100v°, XVIe" "siècle, 13" "h, 13" "h" "30.


  • Capital letters and italics

Do not insert an initial capital for each term of an organization. Some examples of usage: the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, the Académie de Rennes, the Centre Georges-Pompidou; the Centre national de la recherche scientifique, the École nationale des ponts et chaussées (or the Ponts et Chaussées).

Capital letters are accentuated: Á, À, Â, Í, Ì, Î, Ú, Ù, Û, É, È, Ê, Ó, Ò, Ô, etc.

Foreign organizations cited must remain in Roman (not italics). Quotations in quotation marks should not be written in italics.


  • Square brackets

Hooks are only used in 4 cases: - a break within a quotation and/or commentary, e.g.: "quotation [...] quotation [...] quotation [commentary/personal addition] quotation"; - date of publication estimated by the author, e.g.: Dupont M., Title of the book, Paris, n.d. 1920] ; - parentheses included in brackets, e.g.: (Dupont M. [dir.], Titre du livre, Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2010) ; - parentheses followed by brackets (the second parentheses then become brackets), e.g.: text (text) [text].

Translations, dates of 1st edition, etc., must therefore be written in brackets. Also "[...]" should not appear at the beginning of the citation.

Bibliographical references

As indicated in the disclaimer section, and given the multidisciplinary nature of the journal, authors have two possibilities for style of bibliographic citation according to the tradition of the disciplines.

  • Literary" citation model (L)

The reference is given in the form of a call for notes, indicated in Arabic numerals and superscript. It is placed at the word, at the end of a sentence or in the closing quotation mark of a quotation, before any other punctuation mark. It must not be preceded by a space and may not be rejected on the following line: "As Dupont has shown, "the municipal population is increasing [...]"1 ".


  • Anglo-Saxon" referencing models (A)

The reference is cross-referenced in the text. When the reference is introduced in a sentence, only the name(s) of the author(s) are mentioned, followed by the date in brackets: "As shown by Dupont (2015), the municipal population is increasing [...]".

When dealing with more than three authors, the same instructions are given as follows: "As shown by Dupont et al. (2015), the communal population is increasing [...] (Dupont et al., 2015)".


  • Footnotes

Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page, single-spaced, justified, in Times New Roman 10.

Do not cross-reference note numbers.

For footnotes adopting the literary referencing style, authors are invited to abbreviate the author's first name (A.), give the pagination of a work or article precisely (p. 25) and pay attention to the use of op. cit., ibid. and id.


  • Bibliography

References are listed at the end of the article in alphabetical order and are presented as follows for the Anglo-Saxon style (A) and the literary style (L) :

    • Books, published sources

(A) PAILLÉ Pierre and MUCCHIELLI Alex, 2016, L'analyse qualitative en sciences humaines et sociales, Paris, Armand Colin.

(L) REYNAUD Marcelle-Renée, Le temps des princes. Louis II and Louis III d'Anjou-Provence (1384-1434), Lyon, Presses universitaires de Lyon, 2000.

    • Collective works, colloquia, etc.

(A) BIAU Véronique and TAPIE Guy (dir.), 2009, La fabrication de la ville. Métiers et organisations, Marseille, Éditions Parenthèses.

(L) MATZ Jean-Michel, TONNERRE Noël-Yves (dir.), René d'Anjou (1409-1480). Pouvoirs et gouvernement. Actes du colloque d'Angers (2009), Rennes, Presses universitaire de Rennes, 2011. 

    • Academic works (dissertation, thesis)

(A) LEGER-SMITH Fanny-Anaïs, 2014, Évolution des pratiques des paysagistes face aux enjeux écologiques de la conception urbaine, Thèse en aménagement de l'espace et urbanisme, Angers, Université d'Angers, Agrocampus Ouest Centre d'Angers.

(L) ROUSSEAU Aurélien, Finances publiques et société à Angers au XVe siècle (v. 1420-v. 1485), Dissertation for a D.E.A., Angers, University of Angers, 2003.

    • Articles in a collective work, colloquia, etc.

(A) BIAU Véronique, 2009, " Les urbanistes en quête d'identité ; qualifications et modèles professionnels ", in BIAU V. and TAPIE G. (dir.), La fabrication de la ville. Métiers et organisations, Marseille, Éditions Parenthèses, pp. 72-85.

(L) AUTRAND Françoise, CONTAMINE Philippe, "Les livres des hommes de pouvoir: de la pratique à la culture écrite", in ORNATO Monique, PONS Nicole (ed.), Pratiques de la culture écrite en France au XVe siècle, Actes du colloque international du CNRS en l'honneur de G. Ouy (Paris, 1992), Louvain-la-Neuve, FIDEM, 1995, pp. 193-216.

    • Electronic journal articles

(A) BRIFFAUD Serge, 2014, "Le paysage à l'épreuve de la transition énergétique", Projets de paysages, n° 10, [Online] URL: http://www.projetsdepaysage.fr/fr/le_paysage_a_l_epreuve_de_la_transition_energetique, accessed 25 January 2020.

(L) BECCHIA Cécile, CHAMBODUC DE SAINT PULGENT Diane, "L'identité : introduction", Questes, n° 24, 2012, [Online], consulted on 16 May 2018, URL: http://journals.openedition.org/questes/2948

    • Scientific journal articles

(A) DAVODEAU Hervé, 2014, " Le réseau des écoles de paysages françaises : enjeux pédagogiques, scientifiques et professionnels ", Sud-Ouest Européen, n° 38, p. 63-70.

(L) TESSIER Georges, "Les archives de la Chambre des comptes de Blois à la fin du XVIIIe siècle (1775-1781)", Bibliothèque de l'École des chartes, t. 90 [ou n°], 1929, p. 354-377.

    • Sitography

UBL, École doctorale STT, https://ed-stt.u-bretagneloire.fr/, accessed 25 January 2020.

    • Written sources

National Archives, P 13344, fol. 25v.

    • Oral sources, testimonials, speeches, lectures, interviews etc.

DUPONT Jean, Angers, 25 January 2020, optional: age, context (indicate whether a translator was present, the formal/informal nature of the interview, whether it involved note-taking, recording etc.), and if anonymous, indicate the change in identity.

    • Works of art

BOURGEOIS Louise, Lacs de Montagnes, 1997, drypoint, chisel, etching and copper aquatint, wove paper print by BKF Rives, 2 plates of 45, 5 x 60, 5 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris.

    • Tables, graphs, maps and illustrations

It is desirable that the titles and legends of tables, graphs and maps be written in either English or French and be taken out of their frames. Portrait format is always preferable, but a landscape format can be used if necessary (e.g. Figure 1: Location map [normal font in French]).

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